James's games

Lockean Self-Ownership

When John Locke talks about self-ownership, he means that an individual has control over their actions and may not be forced to do or not do something provided they don’t violate the self-ownership of someone else. Continue reading “Lockean Self-Ownership”


The Protestant reformation

In the early 1500s, the Catholic Church was very disorganized. To give an example, some bishops were bishop to several different places at the same time and they would ignore some of those places. Some bishops didn’t even know the Bible very well. To make matters worse, the Church practiced the giving of indulgences for certain donations to the church. The Church was in terrible shape. Continue reading “The Protestant reformation”

How Literature Reflects Society

Popular literature typically reflects the viewpoints of its society. Greek and Roman literature portrayed hundreds of gods who hated mankind and had to be appeased. The Bible depicted one God who controlled everything, was perfect, and who rewards those who served him by doing good. Medieval literature, with its Judeo-Christian basis, depicts God the same way. Continue reading “How Literature Reflects Society”

An Appearance by Death… Maybe

Is the old man in the Pardoner’s Tale “Death” personified? The Pardoner’s tale is from the Canterbury Tales. In the Pardoner’s Tale, three idiots swear an oath to kill Death. Continue reading “An Appearance by Death… Maybe”

Useless Literature for 1300’s Christians

The two pieces of late medieval literature, The Song of Roland and Little Flowers, seem to  provide virtually no guidance as to how a typical Christian should live. The Song of Roland fictionalizes a war in Spain against Muslims. Little Flowers tells about St. Francis of Assisi and the orders he founded. Continue reading “Useless Literature for 1300’s Christians”

The Afterlife

Did the Little Flowers provide the common man with confidence about his own life beyond the grave?

Little Flowers is about St. Francis of Assisi and the orders he founded. It was written in 1390. Little Flowers gave absolutely no confidence about the afterlife to anyone. Continue reading “The Afterlife”

Perfect Suffering

If you had been listening to these stories (from Little Flowers) in 1300, what would you have concluded from them is the way to gain eternal life?

The book Little Flowers is a series of stories following the Friars Minor (an order led by St. Francis of Assisi). Most of these stories focus on suffering and how it’s great. Continue reading “Perfect Suffering”

Wars and Popes

What was the Great Western Schism, and how was it resolved?


The Great Western Schism was a period from 1378 to 1417 when there were multiple Popes at the same time. Continue reading “Wars and Popes”


How important was the doctrine of hell to the martyrs? This question refers to the martyrdom of Polycarp, Perpetua, and Felicity (not martyred at the same time), some of the Christians who were martyred by the Roman Empire. The doctrine of hell, although it may have been important in their conversion, was not very important in their martyrdom Continue reading “Martyrdoms”

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