What was the Great Western Schism, and how was it resolved?
The Great Western Schism was a period from 1378 to 1417 when there were multiple Popes at the same time. The Cardinals elected one guy Pope, but almost immediately afterwards, he started acting like a psychopath. The Cardinals didn’t like this, so they declared his election illegitimate (they actually had a really good excuse) and elected a new Pope. The old Pope still claimed to be Pope and got a bunch of new Cardinals. No one really knew who was Pope. An ecumenical council was called which elected a new Pope, but no one liked him, so they now had three Popes. Eventually, another ecumenical council was called and declared all three Popes illegitimate and elected another (since it worked so well last time), however this time, the strategy did work, leaving only one Pope.
What were the causes and consequences of the Hundred Years’ War?
The primary cause of the Hundred Years’ War was that England wanted to control France. No one really wanted to avoid war, so the Hundred Years’ War was started. The French got their butts’ kicked pretty badly and ended up declaring a temporary peace treaty in which England got a ton of land. Eventually a new king got in power and the French said it wasn’t his land anymore, so he went to war and hammered the French and got a treaty where he married the French princess and his children were declared heir to both France and England. He died five years later leaving an infant son as king and his advisors stank, so a civil war happened and the crown gets juggled around a bunch. Meanwhile, the French went back to war with England and won leaving England with no power in France.